Mercoledì, 24 Ottobre 2018

Benedict, the meek theologian who had to cope with scandal


Vatican City, February 28 - Pope Benedict XVI on
Thursday ended his papacy after a shock resignation that clashed
with the cautious course he tried to steer in his eight years in
Despite the pontiff's best efforts at sticking to tradition
and dogma to shore up the Church's status in a changing world,
his rule was rocked by sex abuse scandals and leaks on supposed
Vatican infighting, while he committed several high-profile
missteps, variously angering Muslims, Jews and Anglicans.
Benedict, 85, announced on February 11 that because of his
failing health he would step aside on February 28 so that a
conclave of cardinals could choose his successor.
Although his health had been a concern for some time, the
abruptness of the announcement by Benedict, the former cardinal
Joseph Ratzinger, stunned the world.
Ever since his election on April 19, 2005, Benedict ignored
appeals from reformers to continue the conservative line of
predecessor John Paul II.
Yet he was also willing to take advantage of new
technologies, becoming the first pope to have his own Twitter
account, which was followed by almost three million soon after
it was launched late last year.
The German-born cleric, who rose through the Vatican ranks
as a hard-core conservative, stood in sharp contrast to his
charismatic predecessor, the Polish pope who thrilled crowds
across the world and helped bring down the Berlin Wall.
The son of a Bavarian police officer, Benedict had a
mandatory stint in the Hitler Youth as a boy.
Throughout his papacy he belied his mild demeanour by
reaffirming resistance to non-believers and a secular society.
He drew flak over a 2001 directive when, as head of the
Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith - the
former Inquisition - Cardinal Ratzinger said that sex-abuse
investigations should be kept in-house.
The Catholic Church is still reeling from the fallout of
the clerical abuse scandals that came to light under Benedict's
papacy after years of being hidden by some Church officials.
Although the Pope eventually apologized for the abuse and
met with victims, the Church remained branded for having
shielded priests accused of molesting youngsters and hiding bad
behaviour which in turn, prevented criminal prosecutions.
More recently, Benedict has repeatedly pledged to root out
abuse although victims' groups have said they were waiting to
see "more concrete" actions on the abuse, which occurred in the
United States, Australia, and across Europe including Germany
and Italy.
However, one early stand-out moment in his eventually
energetic anti-abuse campaign was his decision to remove Mexican
cleric and Legion of Christ founder Marcial Maciel Degollado, a
proven serial predator and father of several children who was
allegedly shielded by his friendly ties to Benedict's
predecessor John Paul II.
Benedict's efforts to protect the Church from scandal
appeared to be consistent with his well-known belief that
Catholicism is the "true" faith while other religions are
deficient and that the modern, secular world, especially in
Europe, is spiritually weak.
He also created controversy with the Islamic world when in
2006 he quoted an ancient emperor's attack on Islam as 'evil and
inhuman,' igniting protests among Muslims worldwide.
Benedict, not surprisingly, also stuck to conservative
lines on homosexuality, the ordination of female priests and
stem-cell research, disappointing Catholic liberals.
The pontiff slapped down American nuns campaigning for a
greater role in the Church.
He even backed a claim that condoms might worsen Africa's
AIDS crisis, before backtracking.
Benedict was also embarrassed when he rehabilitated an
ultra-conservative cleric who turned out to have denied the
scope of the Holocaust, and he strained relations with the
Anglican Church by allegedly high-handedly establishing a
process for disaffected Anglicans to 'return to Rome'.
Another high-profile controversy involved the Vatican Bank,
whose head was sacked amid a push to get it on the UN's list of
countries with flawless anti-money-laundering credentials.
Most recently, Benedict's papacy was upset by the so-called
Vatileaks affair, when his butler leaked confidential documents
to a muckraking journalist alleging corruption in the Vatican.
The pope drew a line under the affair when he pardoned the
former butler who had been sentenced to 18 months in jail, Paolo
Gabriele, in December.
Press reports, angrily rejected as unfounded by the
Vatican, said Benedict felt increasingly unable to cope with
intrigue by powerful cardinals, including a gay cabal that was
allegedly being blackmailed.
However, supporters consistently praised Benedict for the
breadth and innovation of his theological writings and, even
outside the Church, his first encyclical, God Is Love, drew
widespread plaudits for its touching comments on love between a
man and a woman.
His best-selling trilogy on the life of Jesus also gained
acclaim, while traditionalists welcomed his moves to reinstate
the Latin Mass in a more user-friendly form.
Supporters rejected critics' claims he was trying to turn
back the clock on the liberal reforms of the 1960s Second
Vatican Council, arguing that his subtle theological thinking
actually galvanised the Church's cultural and intellectual

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